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Hutchison, Z. L., P. Sigray, H. He, A. B. Gill, J. King, and C. Gibson, (2018). Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Impacts on Elasmobranch (shark, rays, and skates) and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables. Sterling (VA): U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. OCS Study BOEM 2018-003


Copping et al. (2016). Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World. pp 224. Science


Normandeau, et al. (2011). Effects of EMFs from

Undersea Power. Cables on Elasmobranchs and Other Marine Species. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of. Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement, Pacific OCS Region,


Gill et al. (2012). Review of environmental risk and uncertainty for supporting policy development and decision making for the marine renewable energy sector (NERC MREKE and Cranfield University)


Thomsen, Gill et al (2016). MaRVEN - Environmental impacts of noise, vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from marine renewable energy :

final study report. Final Report to European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. RTD-K3-2012-MRE.

Academic publications (open access)


NEW - Hutchison, Z.L., Gill, A.B., Sigray, P., He, H. and King, J.W., 2020. Anthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMF) influence the behaviour of bottom-dwelling marine species. Scientific Reports, 10(1), pp.1-15.

Willsteed, E., Birchenough, S.N.R., Gill, A.B. & Jude, S (2018). Structuring cumulative effects assessments to support regional and local marine management and planning obligations. Marine Policy 98:23-32.

Causon, P. & Gill, A.B. (2018). Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms.

Environmental Science & Policy 89:340-347

Fowler, AM, A-M Jørgensen, JC Svendsen, PI Macreadie, DOB Jones, AR Boon, DJ Booth, R Brabant, E Callahan, JT Claisse, TG Dahlgren, S Degraer, QR Dokken, AB Gill, DG Johns, RJ Leewis, HJ Lindeboom, O Linden, R May, AJ Murk, G Ottersen, DM Schroeder, SM Shastri, J Teilmann, V Todd, G Van Hoey, J Vanaverbeke & JWP Coolen (2018). Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. Online early.

Willsteed et al. (2018). Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82(3), pp 2332-2345

Wilding et al. (2017). Turning off the DRIP (‘Data-rich, information-poor’) – rationalising monitoring with a focus on marine renewable energy developments and the benthos. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 74, pp 848-859

Willsteed et al. (2017). Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground. Science of The Total Environment, 577, pp 19-32

"After nearly 30 years working with a wide variety of clients on the interface between academic science and application of scientific knowledge I set up PANGALIA Environmental to engage in effective, multidisciplinary projects that deal with the real environmental issues and to achieve integrated sustainable solutions now and for our future generations and the future of our blue planet."

Andrew Gill- Founder and Owner

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